# JavaScript Basics

## Introduction

JavaScript, often abbreviated as JS, is a scripting or programming language that allows you to implement complex features on web pages - every time a web page does mroe than just sit there and display static information for you to look at - displaying timely content updates, interactive maps, animated 2D/3D graphics, etc. - you can bet that JavaScript is probably involved. Most modern webpages are a mix of HTML, CSS, and JavaScript.

## Setup and Hello World!

Whenever we are writing JS, we can either write the code directly inside the HTML file or we can create a separate JS file that we link into the HTML. To start, we are going to be writing the JS directly inside the HTML file. We are going to use a basic HTML file titled index.html. We will work directly inside a <script> tag and open the .html file inside a browser. Saving the file and refreshing the browser should show any updates that have been made. Below is the index.html file we will be working with:

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9  JavaScript Testing 
Now that we have the basic HTML file ready to go, let's insert the following JS:
 1 2 3 4 5 6  
The above document.write("") command is the most basic way to write something to the screen. The alert("") command will display text in a dialog box that pops up on the screen.

Linking a seperate JS file into HTML can be helpful for organization and is a simple process. Create another file in the same directory as the index.html file and name it something like script.js. You can name it whatever you want, it just needs to end with the file type .js. To link the .js file into the HTML file, we will add the following code into the <head> tag:

  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10  JavaScript Testing 
Functionally, including the JS as a file or directly inside the HTML file are functionally the same.

## Writing HTML in JavaScript

Let's start with a blank HTML file, like the one from above, that links to an outside JS file. In that JS file, let's add the following:

 1 2 document.write("

JavaScript Rules!

"); document.write("
"); 
The document command refers to the HTML document that the entire file is linked to. The write() command let's us write whatever we want to the HTML document. We can write plain text or actual HTML tags (like the example above). Moving the <script> tag within the HTML file will determine where that JS will write the HTML.